The effectiveness of realistic acceptance and commitment therapy (RACT) on distress tolerance and resilience of divorced women

Document Type : Original Article


Ph.D., Lecturer, Farhangian University, Allameh Tabatabai Campus, Orumieh, Iran


Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of realistic acceptance and commitment therapy (RACT) on couples' distress tolerance and resilience. Method: The purpose of the present research was applied and its method was quasi-experimental with a pre-test and post-test design with an experimental group and a control group and a two-month follow-up period. The statistical population of the study included all divorced women who referred to private counseling centers in the 9th district of Tehran, 30 people were selected by available sampling and randomly assigned to an experimental group (15 people) and a control group (15 people). Then, a group intervention test based on realistic acceptance and commitment therapy (RACT) was conducted on the group based on the package developed by Afshari et al. (2022). The research tools included Simmons and Gaher (2005) distress tolerance and Connor and Davidson (2003) resilience questionnaire. SPSS-26 software and mixed variance analysis with three-stage repeated measures were used for statistical analysis of data. Results: Based on the findings, there was a significant difference between the stress tolerance and resilience scores of the experimental and control groups in the pre-test, post-test and follow-up stages. The results of the analysis of the findings indicate that the realistic acceptance and commitment therapy (RACT) had a significant effect on the distress tolerance and resilience of the experimental group. The effectiveness of this intervention was stable in the follow-up phase according to the Bonferroni post hoc test. Conclusion: Based on the available findings, it can be concluded that to increase the distress tolerance and resilience of divorced women, the method of treatment based on realistic acceptance and commitment (RACT) can be used in family counseling and couple therapy centers.


افشاری، محبوبه.، خیاطان، فلور.، و یوسفی، زهرا. (1401). مقایسه اثربخشی بسته درمان پذیرش و تعهد واقعیت‌گرا و درمان شناختی رفتاری بر اهمال‌کاری و مسئولیت‌پذیری دختران نوجوان. خانواده درمانی کاربردی، 3(2): 1-19
دربانی، سیدعلی.، و پارساکیا، کامدین. (1401). اثربخشی مشاوره مبتنی بر توانمندی بر کاهش افسردگی زنان مطلقه. سنجش و پژوهش در مشاوره کاربردی، 4(1): 64-76
سعادتی، نادره.، رستمی، مهدی.، و دربانی، سید علی. (1400). مقایسه اثربخشی درمان مبتنی بر پذیرش و تعهد (ACT) و درمان متمرکز بر شفقت (CFT) در تقویت عزت‌نفس و سازگاری پس از طلاق زنان. دوفصلنامه روانشناسی خانواده، 3(2): 45-58
شهیدی، شاهین.، حسن زاده، رمضان.، و میرزاییان، بهرام. (1400). اثربخشی درمان مبتنی بر پذیرش و تعهد بر سرسختی روان‌شناختی و تحمل پریشانی در بیماران زن مبتلا به پسوریازیس. دوفصلنامه مطالعات روانشناختی نوجوان و جوان، 2(2): 164-173
مطهری، زهراسادات.، بهزادپور، سمانه.، و سهرابی، فرامز. (1392). تبیین سطح تعارض زناشویی بر اساس هیجان خواهی و تاب آوری در زوجین. زن و مطالعات خانواده، 5(20): 102-122
نظری، عباس.، ساعدی، سارا.، و عبدی، منصور. (1401). مقایسه اثربخشی طرحواره درمانی و درمان مبتنی‌بر پذیرش و تعهد بر تحمل پریشانی هیجانی، کژکاری عملکرد جنسی و سرمایه روانشناختی در بیماران مبتلا به مالتیپل اسکلروزیس، خانواده درمانی کاربردی، 3(1): 461-485
Afshari, M., Khayatan, F., Yousefi, Z. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of the Reality-Based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (RACT) Package and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in Improving Procrastination and Responsibility in Adolescent Girls. Journal of Applied Family Therapy, 2022; 3(2): 1-19.
Azizi AR. Reliability and validity of the Persian version of distress tolerance scale. Iranian journal of psychiatry. 2010;5(4):154-8.
Bhargava R. The use of reality therapy with a depressed deaf adult. Clinical Case Studies. 2013 Oct;12(5):388-96.
Connor KM, Davidson JR. Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor‐Davidson resilience scale (CD‐RISC). Depression and anxiety. 2003 Sep;18(2):76-82.
Darbani S A, Parsakia K. The effectiveness of strength-based counseling on the reduction of divorced women's depression. jarac 2022; 4 (1) :64-76
Feeney TK, Hayes SC. Acceptance and commitment therapy: A contextual view of “positive” and “negative” as applied to positive clinical psychology. The Wiley handbook of positive clinical psychology. 2016 Jun 10:445-59.
Finnes A, Enebrink P, Sampaio F, Sorjonen K, Dahl J, Ghaderi A, Nager A, Feldman I. Cost-effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy and a workplace intervention for employees on sickness absence due to mental disorders. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2017 Dec 1;59(12):1211-20.
Glasser W. Teaching and learning reality therapy. InThe Evolution of Psychotherapy 2019 Apr 1 (pp. 123-134). Routledge.
Gonzalez-Mendez R, Hamby S. Identifying women's strengths for promoting resilience after experiencing intimate partner violence. Violence and victims. 2020 Dec 16.
Hayes SC, Levin ME, Plumb-Vilardaga J, Villatte JL, Pistorello J. Acceptance and commitment therapy and contextual behavioral science: Examining the progress of a distinctive model of behavioral and cognitive therapy. Behavior therapy. 2013 Jun 1;44(2):180-98.
Hayes SC, Luoma JB, Bond FW, Masuda A, Lillis J. Acceptance and commitment therapy: Model, processes and outcomes. Behaviour research and therapy. 2006 Jan 1;44(1):1-25.
Hayes SC. Acceptance and commitment therapy, relational frame theory, and the third wave of behavioral and cognitive therapies. Behavior therapy. 2004 Sep 1;35(4):639-65.
Heffer-Rahn P, Fisher PL. The clinical utility of metacognitive beliefs and processes in emotional distress in people with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2018 Jan 1;104:88-94.
Kakia L. Effect of group counseling based on reality therapy on identity crisis in students of guidance schools. Journal of fundamentals of Mental Health. 2010 Mar 21;12(45):7-430.
Kemani MK, Kanstrup M, Jordan A, Caes L, Gauntlett-Gilbert J. Evaluation of an intensive interdisciplinary pain treatment based on acceptance and commitment therapy for adolescents with chronic pain and their parents: A nonrandomized clinical trial. Journal of pediatric psychology. 2018 Oct 1;43(9):981-94.
Khan SH. Dialectics of Women's Resilience in Shashi Tharoor's Riot. Contemporary Literary Review India. 2020 Nov 10;7(4):141-8.
Leyva LA. Black women’s counter-stories of resilience and within-group tensions in the white, patriarchal space of mathematics education. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 2021 Mar 1;52(2):117-51.
Motahari ZS, Behzadpour S, Soharbi F. Explanation of Marital Conflicts Based on the Sensation ‎Seeking and Resilience in Couples. Women and Family Studies, 2013; 6(20): 105-122.
Nazari, A., Saedi, S., Abdi, M. Comparing the effectiveness of schema therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy on the tolerance of emotional distress, sexual dysfunction and psychological capital of patients with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Applied Family Therapy, 2022; 3(1): 461-485.
Reeder SD. Choice theory: An investigation of the treatment effects of a choice theory protocol on students identified as having a behavioral or emotional disability on measures of anxiety, depression, locus of control and self-esteem (Doctoral dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte).
Rostami R, Dasht Bozorgi Z. Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Resiliency and Alexithymia of Somatic Symptoms. PCP 2019; 7 (2) :87-94
Saadati, N., Rostami, M., Darbani, S. A. Comparing the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT) on improving self-esteem and post-divorce adaptation in women. Journal of Family Psychology, 2021; 3(2): 45-58.
Sasani R. Investigating the relationship between resilience and life satisfaction in couples. The 5th International Conference on Management,Psychology & Humanities with Sustainable development. 2019.
Shahidi S, Hassanzadeh R, Mirzaian B. The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on psychological hardiness and distress tolerance in female patients with psoriasis. jayps 2021; 2 (2) :164-173.
Shalbafan, M, Javaheri, MH. Comparison of emotional schemas, early maladaptive schemas and resilience in divorced couples and living couples. Applied Research in Consulting, 2021; 4(13): 79-94.
Simons JS, Gaher RM. The Distress Tolerance Scale: Development and validation of a self-report measure. Motivation and emotion. 2005 Jun;29(2):83-102.
Solook S. The comparison of effectiveness of therapy based on Glasser choice theory and acceptance and commitment therapy on life expectancy and resilience of women heading households in Tehran city, Journal of New Advances in Behavioral Sciences, 2020; 5(46): 12-27.
Udell CJ, Ruddy JL, Procento PM. Effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy in increasing resilience and reducing attrition of injured US Navy recruits. Military medicine. 2018 Sep 1;183(9-10):e603-11.
Williams AD, Thompson J, Andrews G. The impact of psychological distress tolerance in the treatment of depression. Behaviour research and therapy. 2013 Aug 1;51(8):469-75.