The effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on cognitive regulation of emotion and perceived stress in women with dental anxiety

Document Type : Original Article


M.A. Department of Psychology, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh, Iran


Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on cognitive regulation of emotion and perceived stress in women with dental anxiety. Method: The research method is semi-experimental pre-test and post-test with a control group. The study population included all women with dental anxiety in Tehran who were selected by available sampling method and randomly assigned to two groups (15 people) experimental group and (15 people) control group. The experimental group underwent 8 sessions of 90 minutes of cognitive therapy based on the mindfulness of Segal et al. (2004). The research instruments were Stouthard, Mellenbergh, & Hoogstraten (1993) Dental Anxiety Questionnaire, Garnefski, Kraaij, & Spinhoven (2001) Cognitive Emotion Regulation, and Cohen et al. (1983) Perceived Stress. The results were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance and SPSS.22 software. Results: It showed that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy treatment had a significant effect on increasing cognitive regulation of emotion (F=51.53, P<0.001) and decreasing perceived stress (F=15.25, P<0.001) in women with dental anxiety. Conclusion: It can be concluded that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy was effective on cognitive regulation of emotion and perceived stress in women with dental anxiety.


سامانی، سامانی.، و صادقی، لادن. (1389). کفایت شاخص­های روان­سنجی پرسشنامه تنظیم شناختی هیجان. مجله روش ها و مدل های روانشناختی. 1 (1):51-62.
Asghari, F., Sadeghi, A., Aslani, K., Saadat, S., Khodayari, H. (2013). The Survey of Relationship between Perceived Stress Coping Strategies and Suicide Ideation among Students at University of Guilan, Iran. International Journal of Education and Research. 1(11): 111-118.
Brotto, L. A., Bergeron, S., Zdaniuk, B., Driscoll, M., Grabovac, A., Sadownik, L. A., ... & Basson, R. (2019). A comparison of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy vs cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of provoked vestibulodynia in a hospital clinic setting. The journal of sexual medicine, 16(6), 909-923.
Burgess, E. E., Selchen, S., Diplock, B. D., & Rector, N. A. (2021). A Brief Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) Intervention as a Population-Level Strategy for Anxiety and Depression. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 14(2), 380-398.
Chandrasekhar, S., Madu, G. P., Ambati, N. R., Suravarapu, P. R., Uppu, K., & Bolla, D. (2017). Pioneering Strategies for Relieving Dental Anxiety in Hearing Impaired Children: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Study. Journal of Dentistry, 18(2), 112.
Cohen,S.;Kamarck,T.& Mermelstein, R. A., (1983). “Global measure of perceived stress”. J Health SocBehav, 24: 385-396.
Cunningham, A., McPolin, O., Fallis, R., Coyle, C., Best, P., & McKenna, G. (2021). A systematic review of the use of virtual reality or dental smartphone applications as interventions for management of paediatric dental anxiety. BMC Oral Health, 21(1), 1-11.
Domaradzka, E., & Fajkowska, M. (2018). Cognitive emotion regulation strategies in anxiety and depression understood as types of personality. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 856.
Farb, N., Anderson, A., Ravindran, A., Hawley, L., Irving, J., Mancuso, E., ... & Segal, Z. V. (2018). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depressive disorder with either mindfulness-based cognitive therapy or cognitive therapy. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 86(2), 200.
Garnefski, N., & Kraaij, V. (2006). Cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire–development of a short 18-item version (CERQ-short). Personality and individual differences, 41(6), 1045-1053.
Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, P. (2001). Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. Personality and Individual differences, 30(8), 1311-1327.
Goldberg, S. B., Tucker, R. P., Greene, P. A., Davidson, R. J., Kearney, D. J., & Simpson, T. L. (2019). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for the treatment of current depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis. Cognitive behaviour therapy, 48(6), 445-462.
Grisolia, B. M., Dos Santos, A. P. P., Dhyppolito, I. M., Buchanan, H., Hill, K., & Oliveira, B. H. (2021). Prevalence of dental anxiety in children and adolescents globally: A systematic review with meta‐analyses. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 31(2), 168-183.
Harris, M., Wilson, J. C., Hughes, S., Knevel, R. J. M., & Radford, D. R. (2018). Perceived stress and well‐being in UK and Australian dental hygiene and dental therapy students. European Journal of Dental Education, 22(3), e602-e611.
Janković, S. M., Aleksić, D., Bahtijari, Z., Jelić, A., Klačar, J., Kovačević, A., ... & Ružić-Zečević, D. (2014). Risk factors for severe dental anxiety among medical students. Vojnosanitetski pregled, 71(1), 16-21.
Jiménez-Ortiz, J. L., Islas-Valle, R. M., Jiménez-Ortiz, J. D., Pérez-Lizárraga, E., Hernández-García, M. E., & González-Salazar, F. (2019). Emotional exhaustion, burnout, and perceived stress in dental students. Journal of International Medical Research, 47(9), 4251-4259.
Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L., & Burney, R. (1985). The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain. Journal of behavioral medicine, 8(2), 163-190.
Langer, K., Wolf, O. T., & Jentsch, V. L. (2021). Delayed effects of acute stress on cognitive emotion regulation. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 125, 105101.
Meira, T. M., Paiva, S. M., Antelo, O. M., Guimarães, L. K., Bastos, S. Q., & Tanaka, O. M. (2020). Perceived stress and quality of life among graduate dental faculty. Journal of Dental Education, 84(10), 1099-1107.
Mohamadi, J., Ghazanfari, F., & Drikvand, F. M. (2019). Comparison of the effect of dialectical behavior therapy, mindfulness based cognitive therapy and positive psychotherapy on perceived stress and quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Psychiatric Quarterly, 90(3), 565-578.
Razavizadeh Tabadkan, B. B. Z., Jajarmi, M., & Vakili, Y. (2019). The effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on ruminative thoughts, perceived stress and difficulties in emotion regulation of women with type 2 diabetes. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 24(4), 370-383.
Riaz, M., Abid, M., & Bano, Z. (2021). Psychological problems in general population during covid-19 pandemic in Pakistan: role of cognitive emotion regulation. Annals of Medicine, 53(1), 189-196.
Samani, S., & Sadeghi, L. (2010). Psychometric Properties of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Psychological Methods and Models, 1(1), 51-62. (In Persian)
Segal, Z. V., Teasdale, J. D., & Williams, J. M. G. (2004). Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy: Theoretical Rationale and Empirical Status.
Stouthard, M. E., Mellenbergh, G. J., & Hoogstraten, J. (1993). Assessment of dental anxiety: a facet approach. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 6(2), 89-105.
Tellez, M., Potter, C. M., Kinner, D. G., Jensen, D., Waldron, E., Heimberg, R. G., ... & Ismail, A. I. (2015). Computerized tool to manage dental anxiety: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of dental research, 94(9_suppl), 174S-180S.
Tickell, A., Ball, S., Bernard, P., Kuyken, W., Marx, R., Pack, S., ... & Crane, C. (2020). The effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in real-world healthcare services. Mindfulness, 11(2), 279-290.
Vaziri, Z. S., Mashhadi, A., Shamloo, Z. S., & Shahidsales, S. (2017). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, cognitive emotion regulation and clinical symptoms in females with breast cancer. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 11(4).
Wang, Q. Q., Fang, Y. Y., Huang, H. L., Lv, W. J., Wang, X. X., Yang, T. T., ... & Zhang, Y. H. (2021). Anxiety, depression and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in Chinese nurses during the COVID‐19 outbreak. Journal of Nursing Management, 29(5), 1263-1274.
Yousefi, R., Piri, F. (2017). Psychological properties of dental anxiety inventory. J Mashhad Den Sch. 41(1): 69-78. [In Persian].
Yüksel, A., & Yılmaz, E. B. (2020). The effects of group mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in nursing students: A quasi-experimental study. Nurse education today, 85, 104268.