Comparing the Effectiveness of Compassion Focused Therapy and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on the Anxiety of Infertile Women

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD student, Department of Psychology, Emirates Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

2 Visiting Professor, Department of Psychology, Emirates Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran


Aim: Infertile women face a lot of anxiety in life, and it seems that treatments derived from the third wave of psychotherapy can be effective in reducing their anxiety. As a result, the aim of this study was comparing the effectiveness of compassion focused therapy and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on the anxiety of infertile women. Methods: The present research in terms of purpose was applied and in terms of implementation method was semi-experimental with a pretest, posttest and two month follow-up plan with the control group. The research population consisted of infertile women who referred to clinics with a fertility specialist of Tehran city in 2022 year. The research sample was 45 people who were selected by purposive sampling method after checking the inclusion criteria and randomly divided into three equal groups including two experimental groups and one control group. Each of the experimental groups underwent eight sessions of 90-minute the therapies of compassion focused and mindfulness-based cognitive, separately and the control group during this time did not receive therapy. The data were collected with Beck et al's anxiety inventory (1988) and analyzed with mixed variance analysis and Bonferroni post hoc test in SPSS software. Results: The analyzes showed that both compassion focused therapy and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in compared to the control group reduced the anxiety of infertile women, and the effectiveness of compassion focused therapy in compared to mindfulness-based cognitive therapy was more effective in reducing their anxiety (P<0.001). Conclusion: According to the results of the present study and considering the greater effectiveness of compassion focused therapy in compared to mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in reducing the anxiety of infertile women, it is suggested that therapists in their interventions used from compassion focused therapy.


Main Subjects

رضایی، علی محمد.، شریفی، طیبه.، غضنفری، احمد.، افلاکی، الهام.، و بهره دار، محمد جعفر. (1399). اثربخشی درمان مبتنی بر پذیرش و تعهد و درمان مبتنی بر شفقت بر افسردگی، اضطراب، کیفیت زندگی بیماران مبتلا به لوپوس. روانشناسی سلامت، 9(33)، 127-144.
شایسته مهر، سهند، عسگری، دوست لیلا.، و ترابی، احمد.، ثاقب تبریزی، مریم.، و آریا فراز، الهام. (1400). پیش‌بینی سلامت روانشناختی بر اساس احساس تنهایی و حمایت اجتماعی ادراک شده با نقش واسطه‌ای معنویت در زنان نابارور. سبک زندگی اسلامی با محوریت سلامت. ۵(۲)، ۹۲-۱۰۰.
مشاک، رویا.، نادری، فرح.، و چین آوه، محبوبه. (1400). مقایسه اثربخشی درمان شناختی رفتاری مذهبی و درمان مثبت نگری بر خودانتقادی و پریشانی روان شناختی در زنان نابارور شهرستان اهواز. نشریه پژوهش پرستاری ایران. ۱۶(۳) :۵۹-۷۳.
Abdolali Z, Sepanta M, Afshar Zanjani H. (2023). The effectiveness of compassion-focused therapy for parents on reducing aggression, behavioral problems, and anxiety in children. International Journal of Body, Mind and Culture; 7(3): 172-179. doi 10.22122/ijbmc.v7i3.222 (In Persian).
Aghili M, Tanzadeh B. (2022). The effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive-behavioral therapy on perfectionism and self-focused attention in infertile couples in Isfahan. Journal of Assessment and Research in Applied Counseling. 4(2), 1-5. doi:10.52547/jarac.4.3.1
Ahmadi R, Sajjadian I, Jaffari F. (2019). The effectiveness of compassion-focused therapy on anxiety, depression and suicidal thoughts in women with vitiligo. Journal of Dermatology and Cosmetic; 10(1): 18-29.
Altintas M, Korkut S. (2023). Investigation of coronavirus anxiety, health anxiety, and anxiety symptom levels in vertigo patients during COVID-19 pandemic. Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology; 89(2): 313-320. doi: 10.1016/j.bjorl.2022.11.003
Au TM, Sauer-Zavala S, King MW, Petrocchi N, Barlow DH, Litz BT. (2017). Compassion-based therapy for trauma-related shame and posttraumatic stress: Initial evaluation using a multiple baseline design. Behavior Therapy; 48(2): 207-221. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2016.11.012
Azarbayjani S, Sadeghi afjeh Z, Ghanbari N. (2020). The Effectiveness of Compassion-Enriched Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Quality of Life and Life Expectancy in Depressed Housewives. Journal of Assessment and Research in Applied Counseling. 2(1), 52-70. doi:10.52547/jarcp.2.1.52
Beck AT, Epstein N, Brown G, Steer RA. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: Psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology; 56(6): 893-897. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.56.6.893
Biringer E, Kessler U, Howard LM, Pasupathy D, Mykletun A. (2018). Anxiety, depression and probability of live birth in a cohort of women with self-reported infertility in the HUNT 2 study and medical birth registry of Norway. Journal of Psychosomatic Research; 113: 1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2018.07.001
Cladder-Micus MB, Vrijsen JN, Fest A, Spijker J, Donders ART, Becker ES, Speckens AEM. (2023). Follow-up outcomes of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for patients with chronic, treatment-resistant depression. Journal of Affective Disorders; 335: 410-417. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2023.05.023
Craig C, Hiskey S, Spector A. (2020). Compassion focused therapy: a systematic review of its effectiveness and acceptability in clinical populations. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics; 20(4): 385-400. doi: 10.1080/14737175.2020.1746184
Emadian SO, Emadian SA, Dehrouyeh S, Hosseini Tabaghdehi SL. (2022). The effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on anxiety, rumination and fatigue in women with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Jiroft University of Medical Sciences; 9(1): 863-874.
Felder JN, Segal Z, Beck A, Sherwood NE, Goodman SH, Boggs J, et al. (2017). An open trial of web-based mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for perinatal women at risk for depressive relapse. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice; 24(1): 26-37. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2016.02.002
Felez-Nobrega M, Haro JM, Koyanagi A. (2022). Multimorbidity, depression with anxiety symptoms, and decrements in health in 47 low- and middle-income countries. Journal of Affective Disorders; 317: 176-184. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2022.08.110
Fumero A, Penate W, Oyanadel C, Porter B. (2020). The effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions on anxiety disorders: A systematic meta-review. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education; 10(3): 704-719. doi: 10.3390/ejihpe10030052
Gilbert P. (2014). The origins and nature of compassion focused therapy. The British Journal of Clinical Psychology; 53(1): 6-41. doi: 10.1111/bjc.12043
Greenberg T, Bertocci MA, Versace A, Lima Santos JP, Chase HW, Siffler R, et al. (2021). Depression and anxiety mediate the relationship between frontotemporal white matter integrity and quality of life in distressed young adults. Journal of Psychiatric Research; 132: 55-59. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.10.001
Grodin J, Clark JL, Kolts R, Lovejoy TI. (2019). Compassion focused therapy for anger: A pilot study of a group intervention for veterans with PTSD. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science; 13: 27-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jcbs.2019.06.004
Kahlmann V, Moor CC, Van Helmondt SJ, Mostard RLM, Vander Lee M, Grutters J, et al. (2023). Online mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for fatigue in patients with sarcoidosis (TIRED): a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet: Respiratory Medicine; 11(3): 265-272. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(22)00387-3
Keutler M, McHugh L. (2022). Self-compassion buffers the effects of perfectionistic self-presentation on social media on wellbeing. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science; 23: 53-58. doi: 10.1016/j.jcbs.2021.11.006
Kugbey N, Meyer-Weitz A, Asante KO. (2019). Access to health information, health literacy and health-related quality of life among women living with breast cancer: Depression and anxiety as mediators. Patient Education and Counseling; 102(7): 1357-1363. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2019.02.014
Magzoub R, Kheirelseid EAH, Perks C, Lewis S. (2022). Does metformin improve reproduction outcomes for non-obese, infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome? Meta-analysis and systematic review. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology; 271: 38-62. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2022.01.025
Mashak R, Naderi F, Chinaveh M. (2021). The comparison of effectiveness of religion based cognitive behavior and positive psycho therapies on self-criticism and distressing psychological of infertile women Ahvaz city. Iranian Journal of Nursing Research; 16(3): 59-73. (In Persian)
Mathur S, Sharma MP, Balachander SB, Kandavel T, Reddy YCJ. (2021). A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy vs stress management training for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders; 282: 58-68. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.12.082
Millard LA, Wan MW, Smith DM, Wittkowski A. (2023). The effectiveness of compassion focused therapy with clinical populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders; 326: 168-192. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2023.01.010
Nho JH, Kim EJ. (2022). Relationships among type-D personality, fatigue, and quality of life in infertile women. Asian Nursing Research; 16(4): 208-214. doi: 10.1016/j.anr.2022.08.001
Ninomiya A, Sado M, Park S, Fujisawa D, Kosugi T, Nakagawa A, et al. (2020). Effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in patients with anxiety disorders in secondary-care settings: A randomized controlled trial. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences; 74(2): 132-139. doi: 10.1111/pcn.12960
Rezaei AM, Sharifi T, Ghazanfari A, Aflaki E, Bahredar MJ. (2020). Effectiveness of treatment based on acceptance and commitment, compassion-based therapy and combination therapy on depression, anxiety and quality of life in patients with lupus. Health Psychology; 9(33): 127-144. doi: 10.30473/hpj.2020.48753.4576 (In Persian)
Sadeghi E, Sajjadian I, Nadi M. (2021). Comparing the effects of compassion-based mindfulness and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on emotional empathy and life orientation in female students. Middle Eastern Journal of Disability Studies; 11(155): 1-9.
Sedighi K, Saffarian Toosi M, Khadivi G. (2021). Effectiveness of mindfulness based cognitive therapy on anxiety and depression of divorce women. Journal of Research in Behavioral Sciences; 19(1): 149-160. doi: 10.52547/rbs.19.1.149
Segal Z, Dimidjian S, Vanderkruik R, Levy J. (2019). A maturing mindfulness-based cognitive therapy reflects on two critical issues. Current Opinion in Psychology; 28: 218-222. doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2019.01.015
Safavizadeh G, Manshaei G. (2020). The Effectiveness of Group Reality Therapy on Positive and Negative Affect and Marital Satisfaction in Infertile Women. Journal of Assessment and Research in Applied Counseling. 2(1), 1-18. doi:10.52547/jarcp.2.1.1
Shayesteh Mehr S, Asgari Doost L, Torabi A, Sagheb Tabrizi M, Aria Faraz E. (2021). Predicting mental health based on feelings of loneliness and perceived social support with a mediating role of spirituality in infertile women. Journal of Islamic Life Style; 5(2): 92-100. (In Persian)
Shulman B, Dueck R, Ryan D, Breau G, Sadowski I, Misri S. (2018). Feasibility of a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy group intervention as an adjunctive treatment for postpartum depression and anxiety. Journal of Affective Disorders; 235: 61-67. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.065
Soltani Delgosha M, Vaziri S, Shahabizadeh F, Ahi G, Mansoori A. (2023). The effectiveness of compassion-based treatment on depression, anxiety and aggression of emergency medical workers with corona. Avicenna Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Care; 31(2): 11-20. doi: 10.32592/ajnmc.31.2.11
Tabatabaee SM, Pakravan F, Aghaei H. (2022). Modeling the structural relationships between perfectionism and sleep quality: The mediating role of anxiety. Medical Journal of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences; 65(1): 366-376. doi: 10.22038/mjms.2022.61740.3615
Talebi M. (2021). The effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on anxiety, happiness and mindfulness in nurses. Avicenna Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Care; 29(2): 126-136. doi: 10.30699/ajnmc.29.2.126
Taylor A, Hodgson D. (2020). The Behavioural Display of Compassion in Radiation Therapy: Purpose, Meaning and Interpretation. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences; 51(4): 59-71. doi: 10.1016/j.jmir.2020.08.003
Vidal J, Soldevilla JM. (2023). Effect of compassion-focused therapy on self-criticism and self-soothing: A meta-analysis. British Journal of Clinical Psychology; 62(1): 70-81. doi: 10.1111/bjc.12394
Volodarsky-Perel A, Badeghiesh A, Shrem G, Steiner N, Tulandi T. (2020). Chronic endometritis in fertile and infertile women who underwent hysteroscopic polypectomy. Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology; 27(5): 1112-1118. doi: 10.1016/j.jmig.2019.08.017