The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral hypnotherapy on distress tolerance and aggression in women with premenstrual dysphoria

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD student, Department of Psychology, Tonkabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonkabon, Iran

2 Assistant Professor and Faculty Member, Department of Psychology, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandan University of Medical Sciences, Iran


The current study was conducted with the aim of cognitive-behavioral hypnotherapy on distress tolerance and aggression in women suffering from premenstrual dysphoria. The current study is a semi-experimental type in which a pre-test-post-test design was conducted with a control group with measurement at the baseline after the intervention and a 3-month follow-up with the control group. 30 women aged 25 to 40 with a diagnosis of premenstrual boredom disorder who referred to psychological counseling centers in Sari city in 2019 were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental group (cognitive-behavioral hypnotherapy n=15) and (control n=15). were assigned All participants completed the demographic questionnaire, distress tolerance of Simmons and Gaher (2005) and aggression of Bass and Perry (1992), in three stages. The intervention sessions were conducted face-to-face in compliance with health protocols. Hypotheses related to the effectiveness of the research intervention were analyzed using multivariate covariance analysis and Lametrics post hoc test and using SPSS-19 software. The results of the present study showed that there is no significant difference between the two groups in the pre-test stage of distress tolerance and aggression, which indicates the homogeneity of the two research groups in the pre-test stage, but there is a significant difference between the two groups in the post-test and follow-up stages. Which can indicate the effectiveness of the intervention on the mentioned variables and also the stability of the effectiveness in the follow-up phase. Considering the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral hypnotherapy, this treatment should be prioritized.


Ahmadzadeh Samani, S., Dehnashi, A., Kalantari, M., & Rezaei dehnavi, S. (2021). Effectiveness of Teaching Skills Based on Schema Therapy on the Distress Tolerance and Psychological Flexibility of Female Students with Early Maladaptive Schema. Psychology of Exceptional Individuals, 11(43): 87-116. doi: 10.22054/jpe.2021.57328.2259
Baharvand, V., Dortaj, F., Nasri, S., & Nasrollahi, B. (2022). Comparison of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy, cognitive hypnotherapy, and EMDR on improving anxiety and autobiographical memory in women. Journal of Psychological Achievements. May 2.
Banwal, S., & Siddiqui, Z. U. (2021). Effect of Pranayama on premenstrual syndrome in the present scenario. International Journal of Health Sciences.(II):5987-99.
Biglari, F., Asli azad, M., & Miri Sangtarashani, S. (2022). Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognition Therapy on Covid-19 Anxiety and Distress Tolerance in the Patients Recovered from Corona Virus. Psychological Achievements, doi: 10.22055/psy.2022.40247.2807
Buss, A. H., & Perry, M. (1992). The aggression questionnaire. JPSP, 63(3):452-459.
Coventry, P. (2022). Occupational health and safety receptivity towards clinical innovations that can benefit workplace mental health programs: anxiety and hypnotherapy trends. International journal of environmental research and public health. 19(13):7735.
Dutta, A., & Sharma, A. (2021). Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in India: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Health Promotion Perspectives. 2021; 11(2):161.
Eslampanah, M., Mahdian, H., & Jajarmi, M. (2021). Developing a model of adolescent addiction risk based on distress tolerance and emotion regulation: the mediating role of early maladaptive schemas. Journal of Applied Family Therapy, 2(3): 403-423. doi: 10.22034/aftj.2022.316247.1273
Fuhr, K., Meisner, C., Broch, A., Cyrny, B., Hinkel, J., Jaberg, J., Petrasch, M., Schweizer, C., Stiegler, A., Zeep, C., & Batra, A. (2021). Efficacy of hypnotherapy compared to cognitive behavioral therapy for mild to moderate depression-Results of a randomized controlled rater-blind clinical trial. Journal of Affective Disorders. 286:166-73.
Hamzah, F., Mat, K. C., & Amaran, S. (2022). The effect of hypnotherapy on exam anxiety among nursing students. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine. 19(1):131-7.
Makukh, K., Horodnycha, O., & Nepyivoda, O. (2022). The management of premenstrual syndrome: results of a questionnaire survey of women in Lviv pharmacies, Ukraine. ScienceRise: Pharmaceutical Science. 3(37):27-33.
Markin, K. V., Temniy, A. V., & Dnov, K. V. (2022). Efficacy of hypnotherapy in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. A systematic review with meta-analysis. Neurology Bulletin. 54(2):44-55.
Muange, S. N. (2021). Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: prevalence, symptomatology and coping practices amongst women attending Tertiary Educational Institutions in Machakos Subcounty, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).
Nappi, R. E., Cucinella, L., & Bosoni, D., Righi, A., Battista, F., Molinaro, P., Stincardini, G, Piccinino, M., Rossini, R., & Tiranini, L. (2022). Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder as Centrally Based Disorders. Endocrines. 3(1):127-38.
Nurmansyah, A., Iskandarsyah, A., Sriati, A., & Yani, F. S. (2022). Influence of Hypnotherapy to Reduce the Anxiety of School-Age Children in the Preoperative Phase in the Guntur Room of Level II Dustira Cimahi Hospital. Jurnal Keperawatan Komprehensif (Comprehensive Nursing Journal). 8(Special Edition).
Patel, D. (2021). Effectiveness of Hypnotherapy and Neurolinguistic Programming on Test Anxiety Among Paramedical Students (Doctoral dissertation, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda (India)).
Sammehr, V., Farshbaf Manisefat, F., Khademi, A., & Shabani, R. A (2022). comparative analysis of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and hypnotherapy on reduce Interpersonal cognitive distortions of adolescents with oppositional defiant disorder. Razi Journal of Medical Sciences. 29(3):0-.
Siahbazi, Sh., Hariri, F. Z., Montazeri, A., & Moghaddam Banaem, L. (2011). Translation and psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST). Payesh. 10(4): 421-427
Tehfe, H., Chow, R., Li, S., Kim, P., Samari, S., Hayawi, L., Webster, R., & Fadel, N. B. (2022). Risk of Bias Assessment in Non-Randomized Studies of Interventions for Premenstrual Syndrome: A Systematic Review. Risk. 16(2).
Trezza, A., Krabbe, J. P. A. (2022). Vicious Cycle: Using Nutrition to Combat the Behavioral Impact of Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder. Nutritional Perspectives: Journal of the Council on Nutrition. 45(2).
Veilleux, J. C., Hyde, K. C, Clift, J. B. (2022). When is your distress harder to tolerate? A qualitative analysis of situations in which distress tolerance is impaired and strengthened. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science. 23:85-91.
Yücesoy, H., & Erbi̇l, N. (2022). Relationship of premenstrual syndrome with postpartum depression and mother–infant bonding. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. 58(3):1112-20.