Assessing the factor structure of the Family Expression Questionnaire

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD Student, General Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch, Saveh, Iran

2 Professor, Clinical Psychology, Seminary Research Institute and University

3 Associate Professor in psychology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities Islamic Azad University, Saveh unit, Saveh, Iran


Introduction: The family is an important environment for learning about emotions and how to express them in a social context.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Family Expression Questionnaire.
Method: The research method was descriptive-correlation based on structural equations. The statistical population of this study was among 378 patients referred to counseling and psychotherapy centers. Participants answered the Halbershtat (1986) Family Expression Questionnaire and the personality function of John the Great et al. (1400). In this study, the personality function questionnaire (Jan Bozorgi et al., 1400) was used to determine the convergent and divergent validity of the Family Expression Questionnaire. To analyze descriptive and inferential data from the latest version of SPSS and LISREL software version 8.5 using path analysis by AMOS program, direct and indirect effects of variables were obtained and the data were converted into covariance or correlation matrices and a set of regression equations between variables. Was drafted. Path analysis was also used to evaluate the hypothetical model.
Results: The standard factor load of all indicators is greater than 0.32. The highest factor load belonged to p6 marker (β = 0.763) and the smallest factor load belonged to p20 marker (β = 0.457).
Conclusion: dominant positive and positive components of the Family Expression Questionnaire, in contrast to its dominant negative and negative negative components, were positive and at a significant level of 0.01 with the four components of the Personality Function Questionnaire (identity, intimacy, empathy). And self-direction) are correlated. These findings indicate that the family expression questionnaire has concurrent validity. Also, Cronbach's alpha coefficient of positive, dominant positive, dominant negative and negative negative components were equal to 0.081, 0.74, 0.86 and 0.79, respectively. These results indicate the acceptable internal consistency of the family expression questionnaire.


زارعی توپخانه، محمد.، جان­بزرگی، مسعود.، و احمدی، محمدرضا. (1394). رابطه ساختار قدرت خانواده اصلی با ساختار قدرت خانواده فعلی و عملکرد آن. روانشناسی و دین، 3(39): 121-136
شکری، مریم.، رحمانی، محمد علی.، و ابوالقاسمی، شهنام. (1400). تأثیر زوج درمانی هیجان مدار بر بخشودگی، خودتنظیمی هیجانی و دلزدگی زناشویی زوجین متقاضی طلاق مراجعه کننده به اورژانس های اجتماعی خانواده. سبک زندگی اسلامی با محوریت سلامت. ۵ (۱): ۹۶-۸۶
شمسایی، فرشید.، صادقیان، عفت.، نظری، فاطمه.، و برزگر، علی. (1396). بررسی انگ در مراقبان خانوادگی بیماران مبتلا به اختلالات روان‌پزشکی در بیمارستان فرشچیان همدان. تحقیقات نظام سلامت، ۱۳ (۴): ۴۲۸-۴۲۲
فرشاد، محمدرضا.، نجارپوریان، سمانه.، و سلم آبادی، مجتبی. (1397). پیش بینی کارکرد خانواده‌ بر مبنای الگوهای ارتباطی و حمایت اجتماعی ادراک‌ شده در دانشجویان متاهل پرستاری دانشگاه علوم پزشکی هرمزگان. روان پرستاری، ۶ (۱) :۲۵-۱۹
فرهمند، مهناز.، و حسن­زاده، زهرا. (1398). ساختار و عملکرد خانوادگی در خانواده های تک همسری و چند همسری. جامعه شناسی کاربردی، 30(3): 135-154
Becvar, R J., Becvar, D S. (2019). Systems Theory and Family Therapy: A primer: Rowman & Littlefield.
Berlin, L. J., & Cassidy, J. (2003). Mothers’ self-reported control of their preschool children’s emotional expressiveness: a longitudinal study of associations with infant-mother attachment and children’s emotion regulation. Social Development12, 477–495.
Boyce, W. T., Frank, E., Jensen, P. S., Kessler, R. C., Nelson, C. A., Steinberg, L., & The MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Psychopathology and Development. (1998). Social context in developmental psychopathology: Recommendations for future research from the MacArthur Network on Psychopathology and Development. Development and Psychopathology, 10(2), 143–164.
Boyum, L. A., & Parke, R. D. (1995). The role of family emotional expressiveness in the development of children’s social competence. Journal of Marriage and The Family, 57, 593–608.
Carona, CM., Moreira, HF., Fonseca, A. (2021). Maternal depression and anxiety in an interpersonal context: The effects of positive–negative self-expressiveness within the family. Journal of Current Psychology, 22(7), 971–986.
Cassidy, J., Parke, R. D., Butkovsky, L., & Braungart, J. M. (1992). Familypeer connections: The roles of emotional expressiveness within the family and children’s understanding of emotions. Child Development, 63(3), 603–618.
Cheng, Feng., Wang, Yifang., Zhao, Jiayin., Wu, Xixian. (2018). Mothers' negative emotional expression and preschoolers' negative emotional regulation strategies in Beijing, China: The moderating effect of maternal educational attainment. Child Abuse Negl. 84:74-81.
Cordaro, D. T., Sun, R., Keltner, D., Kamble, S., Huddar, N., & McNeil, G. (2018). Universals and cultural variations in 22 emotional expressions across five cultures. Emotion, 18(1), 75–93.
Dai,, L., Wang, L. (2015). Review of family functioning. Open Journal of Social Sciences;3(12):134- 41.
Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A., & Spinrad, T. L. (1998). Parental socialization of emotion. Psychological Inquiry9, 241–273.
Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A., & Spinrad, T. L. (1998a). Parental socialization of emotion. Psychological Inquiry, 9(4), 241–273. 10.1207/s15327965pli0904_1
Eisenberg, N., Liew, J., & Pidada, S. U. (2001). The relations of parental emotional expressivity with quality of Indonesian children’s social functioning. Emotion, 1(2), 116–136.
Eisenberg, N., Losoya, S., Fabes, R. A., Guthrie, I. K., Reiser, M., Murphy, B., Shepard, S. A., Poulin, R., & Padgett, S. J. (2001). Parental socialization of children’s dysregulated expression of emotion and externalizing problems. Journal of Family Psychology, 15(2), 183–205.
Folkman, S. (2008). The case for positive emotions in the stress process. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping,21(1), 3–14.
Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review ofGeneral Psychology, 2(3), 300–319. .3.300.
Gamble, W. C., & Yu, J. J. (2014). Young children’s sibling relationship interactional types: associations with family characteristics, parenting, and child characteristics. Early Education and Development25, 223–239.
Graham, S. M., Huang, J. Y., Clark, M. S., & Helgeson, V. S. (2008). The positives of negative emotions: Willingness to express negative emotions promotes relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(3), 394–406.
Halberstadt, A. G. (1986). Family socialization of emotional expression and nonverbal communication styles and skills. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(4), 827–836. .4.827.
Halberstadt, A. G., & Lozada, F. L. (2011). Emotion development in infancy through the lens of culture. Emotion Review, 3(2), 158–168.
Halberstadt, A. G., Cassidy, J., Stifter, C. A., Parke, R. D., & Fox, N. A. (1995). Self-expressiveness within the family context: Psychometric support for a new measure. Psychological Assessment, 7(1), 93–103.
Halberstadt, A. G., Fox, N. A.,& Jones, N. A. (1993). Do expressive mothers have expressive children? The role of socialization in children’s affect expression. Social Development, 2(1), 48–65. .1467-9507.1993.tb00004.x
Jona, CM., Labuschagne, I., Mercieca, EC., Fisher, F., Gluyas, C., Stout, JC. (2017). Families affected by huntington’s disease report difficulties in communication, emotional involvement, and problem solving. Journal of Huntington's Disease.6(3):169-77.
Kim, E. K., You, S., & Knox, J. (2020). The mediating effect of empathy on the relation between child self-expressiveness in family and prosocial behaviors. Journal of Child and Family Studies. Advance online publication.
McNeil, G. D., & Repetti, R. L. (2021). Everyday emotions: Naturalistic observation of specific positive emotions in daily family life. Journal of Family Psychology, 35(2), 172–181.
Milojevich, Helen, M., Haskett, Mary, E(2018). Longitudinal associations between physically abusive parents' emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation. Child Abuse Negl, 77:144-154.
Morris, A. S., Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., Myers, S. S., & Robinson, L. R. (2007). The role of the family context in the development of emotion regulation. Social Development, 16(2), 361–388. .1467-9507.2007.00389.x
Noguchi, R. P., & Ollendick, T. H. (2010). Is family expressiveness as reported by mothers and fathers related to children’s social anxiety symptoms? Journal of Child and Family Studies19, 278–286.
Olszewski-Kubilius, P. (2018). The role of the family in talent development. In Handbook of Giftedness in Children. 85(6):129-147. 2F978-3-319-77004-8_9.
Popliger, M., Talwar, V., & Crossman, A. (2011). Predictors of Children’s Prosocial Lie-telling: Motivation, Socialization Variables, and Moral Understanding. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 110(3), 373-392.
Ramsden, Sally R. (2013). Family Expressiveness and Parental Emotion Coaching: Their Role in Children's Emotion Regulation and Aggression. Journal of abnormal child psychology,30(6), 657-67.
Raphaela, I. Zehtner., Cosima, L., Baeurle, Bertram Walter., Stark, Rudolf., & Hermann, Andrea(2021). Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the German Version of the Family Expressiveness Questionnaire (FEQ-GR). Psychological Test Adaptation and Development.
Riggio, H. R., & Riggio, R. E. (2002). Emotional expressiveness, extraversion, and neuroticism: A meta-analysis. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 26(4), 195–218.
Saber, F., Shamsaei, F., Tapak, L., Sadeghian, E. (2020). Relationship between the stigma and the family performance of psychiatric patients. Iranian Journal of Nursing Research.14(63):1-8.
Sharf, RS. (2015). Theories of psychotherapy & counseling: concepts and cases. CA, United States: Cengage Learning.5Th edition.631-3.
Stifter, C. A., & Grant, W. (1993). Infant responses to frustration: Individual differences in the expression of negative affect. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 17(3), 187–204.
Sugawara, D., Muto, S., & Sugie, M. (2018). The conceptual structure of positive emotions in Japanese university and graduate students. Shinrigaku Kenkyu, 89(5), 479–489.
Zubrick, S., Silburn, S. (2016). Western Australian aboriginal child health survey: improving the educational experiences