Structural model of self-defeating behaviors based on the basic psychological needs, moral identity and emotional self-awareness of young girls

Document Type : review


1 PhD student, Department of Psychology, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Professor, Department of Educational Psychology, Allameh Tabatab'I University, Tehran ,Iran


Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the fit of structural model of self-defeating behaviors based on basic psychological needs, moral identity and emotional self-awareness in young girls. Method: The present study was correlational and path analysis. The statistical population of the present study included all male and female graduate students of Tehran universities who were studying in the academic year of 2019-20, were selected by cluster sampling; And the Questionnaire of the Importance of Moral Identity for Self (Aquino and Reed, 2002), the Basic Psychological Needs Questionnaire (Guardia et al., 2000), the Academic Dishonesty Scale (Kabi et al., 1997), the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (Grant et al., 2002), The Cognitive and Self-Behavioral Scale (Cunningham, 2007) responded. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling method by Amos software. Results: Findings showed that the structural model of self-defeating behaviors based on the basic psychological needs, moral identity and emotional self-awareness in young people has a good fit (RMSEA= 0.07, GFI= 0.90). There was a significant negative relationship between moral identity and self-defeating behaviors (P<0.01, r= -0.20). Self-awareness has an indirect effect on self-defeating behavior mediated by guilt (P<0.01). Conclusion: It can be concluded that the structural model of self-defeating behaviors based on the basic psychological needs, moral identity and emotional self-awareness in students has a good fit.


قنبری طلب، محمد.، و طهماسبی کهیانی، فاطمه. (1399). پیش‌بینی بی‌صداقتی تحصیلی بر اساس هویت تحصیلی و باورهای هوشی. مطالعات آموزشی و آموزشگاهی، 9(1): 59-78.
حداد رنجبر، سمیه.، سعدی پور، اسماعیل.، درتاج، فریبرز دلاور، علی و ابراهیمی قوام، صغری. (1397). تأثیر آموزش مبتنی بر رویکرد پذیرش و تعهد بر کاهش رفتارهای خودشکن تحصیلی دانشجویان: براساس بسته آموزشی تدوین شده. پژوهش در آموزش علوم پزشکی، ۱۰(۲): ۱۷-۸.
محمودی، حشمت الله.، عرفانی، نصراله.، و محققی، حسین. (1396). تدوین مدلی به‌منظور تبیین و پیش‌بینی پیشرفت تحصیلی بر پایه نیازهای بنیادین روان‌شناختی و انگیزش پیشرفت تحصیلی. پژوهش در برنامه‌ریزی درسی، 14(53): 67-80.
محمدی، زهره.، جوکار، بهرام.، و حسین چاری، مسعود. (1393). پیش‌بینی رفتارهای خودتخریب‌کننده با جهت‌گیری هدف: نقش مراقبه‌ای شرم و احساس گناه. مجله روان‌شناسی رشد، 11(41): 83-103.
مهنا، سعید.، و طالع­پسند، سیاوش. (1395). رابطه بین حمایت‌های محیطی و خودآگاهی هیجانی با درگیری تحصیلی: نقش میانجی بهزیستی تحصیلی. مجله ایرانی آموزش پزشکی، 16: 31-42.
صمدی فرد، حمیدرضا.، و نریمانی، محمد. (1397). رابطه هویت اخلاقی، بهزیستی معنوی و جهت گیری مذهبی با سازگاری شغلی در پرستاران. مجله علمی پژوهان، ۱۷(۱): ۸-۱.
Aquino, K., & Reed II, A. (2002). The self-importance of moral identity. Journal of personality and social psychology, 83(6), 1423.
Bacon, A. M., McDaid, C., Williams, N., & Corr, P. J. (2020). What motivates academic dishonesty in students? A reinforcement sensitivity theory explanation. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 152-166.
Baran, L., & Jonason, P. K. (2020). Academic dishonesty among university students: The roles of the psychopathy, motivation, and self-efficacy. Plos one, 15(8), e0238141.
Chirikov, I., Shmeleva, E., & Loyalka, P. (2020). The role of faculty in reducing academic dishonesty among engineering students. Studies in Higher Education, 45(12), 2464-2480.
Cunningham, C. J. (2008). Stress, need for recovery, and ineffective self-management. In Poster presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Francisco, CA.
Desmond, H. (2021). Expert communication and the self-defeating codes of scientific ethics. The American Journal of Bioethics, 21(1), 24-26.
Ghorbani, N., & Watson, P. J. (2004). Two facets of self-knowledge, the five-factor model, and promotions among Iranian managers. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 32(8), 769-776.
Grant, A. M., Franklin, J., & Langford, P. (2002). The self-reflection and insight scale: A new measure of private self-consciousness. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 30(8), 821-835.
Hendy, N. T., & Montargot, N. (2019). Understanding Academic dishonesty among business school students in France using the theory of planned behavior. The International Journal of Management Education, 17(1), 85-93.
Huhtiniemi, M., Sääkslahti, A., Watt, A., & Jaakkola, T. (2019). Associations among basic psychological needs, motivation and enjoyment within finnish physical education students. Journal of sports science & medicine, 18(2), 239.
Kiekkas, P., Michalopoulos, E., Stefanopoulos, N., Samartzi, K., Krania, P., Giannikopoulou, M., & Igoumenidis, M. (2020). Reasons for academic dishonesty during examinations among nursing students: Cross-sectional survey. Nurse Education Today, 86, 104314.
La Guardia, J. G., Ryan, R. M., Couchman, C. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Within-person variation in security of attachment: a self-determination theory perspective on attachment, need fulfillment, and well-being. Journal of personality and social psychology, 79(3), 367.
Lee, S. D., Kuncel, N. R., & Gau, J. (2020). Personality, attitude, and demographic correlates of academic dishonesty: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 146(11), 1042.
Li, C., Wong, N. K., Sum, R. K., & Yu, C. W. (2019). Preservice teachers’ mindfulness and attitudes toward students with autism spectrum disorder: The role of basic psychological needs satisfaction. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 36(1), 150-163.
Martela, F., & Ryan, R. M. (2020). Distinguishing between basic psychological needs and basic wellness enhancers: the case of beneficence as a candidate psychological need. Motivation and Emotion, 44(1), 116-133.
Patrick, R. B., Bodine, A. J., Gibbs, J. C., & Basinger, K. S. (2018). What accounts for prosocial behavior? Roles of moral identity, moral judgment, and self-efficacy beliefs. The Journal of genetic psychology, 179(5), 231-245.
Peled, Y., Eshet, Y., Barczyk, C., & Grinautski, K. (2019). Predictors of Academic Dishonesty among undergraduate students in online and face-to-face courses. Computers & Education, 131, 49-59.
Wang, G., & Hackett, R. D. (2020). Virtues-centered moral identity: An identity-based explanation of the functioning of virtuous leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 31(5), 101421.
Wang, T., Long, L., Zhang, Y., & He, W. (2019). A social exchange perspective of employee–organization relationships and employee unethical pro-organizational behavior: The moderating role of individual moral identity. Journal of Business Ethics, 159(2), 473-489.
Wang, W., Fu, Y., Qiu, H., Moore, J. H., & Wang, Z. (2017). Corporate social responsibility and employee outcomes: A moderated mediation model of organizational identification and moral identity. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 1906.
Wang, X., Yang, L., Yang, J., Wang, P., & Lei, L. (2017). Trait anger and cyberbullying among young adults: A moderated mediation model of moral disengagement and moral identity. Computers in Human Behavior, 73, 519-526.
Wang, Y., Tian, L., & Huebner, E. S. (2019). Basic psychological needs satisfaction at school, behavioral school engagement, and academic achievement: Longitudinal reciprocal relations among elementary school students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 56, 130-139.