Comparison of the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Reality Therapy (WDEP) on life satisfaction and self-care behaviors in the elderly with type II diabetes

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD student in Psychology, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Health, Islamic Azad University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance, commitment and reality therapy based on life satisfaction and self-care behaviors in the elderly with type II diabetes. Method: The method of the present study was a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest and follow-up period with two experimental nodes and a control group. The statistical population of the study included all elderly diabetic patients (type II) referred to specialized clinics of diabetic patients in Shiraz in 1300-1400, of which 60 people were targeted by sampling with screening and based on Morgan table (20 in experimental group 1 and 20 in experimental group 2). And 20 control groups were randomly replaced. First, all three groups were assessed with the Life Satisfaction Scale (SWLS), Diner et al. (1985) and the Johnson Self-Care Skills Questionnaire (SCAS) (2008); Both experimental groups underwent Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Reality Therapy (WDEP) based on William Glasser's theory for 8 sessions of 90 minutes and the control group did not receive any intervention. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance matrices and t-test for two independent groups. Results: The results showed the effect of acceptance and commitment therapy based on life satisfaction (P-Value /0 0.05, F = 165.475), self-care behaviors (P-Value 05 0.05, F = 78.617) , And reality therapy intervention on life satisfaction (P-Value /0 0.05, F = 155.531), self-care behaviors (P-Value 05 0.05, F = 85.30) and the stability of this effect in the follow-up phase Was. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, it can be concluded that the therapy based on acceptance, commitment and reality therapy as the preferred therapies in the interventions of the elderly with type II diabetes can be used by therapists.


خوش تراش، مهرنوش.، مؤمنی، مریم.، قنبری خانقاه، عاطفه.، صالح زاده، امیرحسین.، و رحمت پور، پروین (1392). رفتارهای خودمراقبتی و عوامل مرتبط با آن در مبتلایان به نارسایی قلبی، مجله پرستاری و مامایی جامع نگر، 23(69): 22- 29.
دانشور، سمیرا.، خدامرادی، علی.، غضنفری، زینب.، و منتظری، علی (1397). بررسی کیفیت زندگی بیماران دیابتی: یک مطالعه مقایسه ای. نشریه پایش، 17(5): 541-550.
شکوهی فر، مرضیه.، و فلاح زاده، حسین (1392). ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ زﻧﺪﮔﻲ در ﺑﻴﻤﺎران ﻣﺒﺘﻼ ﺑﻪ دﻳﺎﺑﺖ ﻧﻮع II و اراﺋﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺪل ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎری. مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مازندران، 24(16): 84- 92.
عازمی زینال، اکرم.، و غفاری، عذرا (1395). اثربخشی درمان مبتنی بر پذیرش و تعهد (ACT) بر افسردگی، سلامت جسمانی و سلامت روانی بیماران دیالیزی. اردبیل: مجله اصول بهداشت روانی، 18(43): 217-229.
کوشیار، هادی.، دلیر، زهرا.، و حسینی، مسعود (1394). بررسی رفتارهای خودمراقبتی مرتبط با سلامت و عوامل مؤثر بر آن در سالمندان مبتلا به دیابت شهر مشهد. مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی رفسنجان، 1(9): 54- 71.
گلاسر، ویلیام (2002). مفاهیم واقعیت درمانی: رویکردی نو به مفهوم واقعیت. ترجمه محمد رحمانیان و سعید رضائیان، 1391، تهران: نشر ویرایش.
منشی، غلامرضا.، زارعی، مجید.، و جعفری وارانی، حامد (1395). بررسی اثربخشی درمان مبتنی بر پذیرش و تعهد (ACT) بر تعدیل طرحواره های ناسازگار اولیه در بیماران همودیالیز. اصفهان: مجله تحقیقات علوم رفتاری، 14(2): 204-209
هاشمی، سید مهدی.، و بویا، صالح الدین (1396). تبعیت از درمان در بیماران مبتلا به دیابت: یک مسئله مهم اما فراموش شده. فصلنامه علمی پژوهشی پرستاری دیابت زابل، 19(45): 175- 193.
هنرپروران، نازنین و میرزایی کیا، حسین (1394). راهنمای عملی درمانگران در درمان مبتنی بر پذیرش و تعهد (ACT). تهران: نشر امید مهر.
Ahami, A., Mammad, K., Azzaoui, Z., Boulbaroud, S., Rouim, F., Rusinek, S. (2017). Early Maladaptive Schemas, Working Memory and Academic Performances of Moroccan Students. Open Journal of Medical Psychology. 6; 53-64.
Benzein E, Berg A. (2015). The level of and relation between hope, hopelessness and fatigue in patients and family members in palliative care. Palliative Medicine; 19(3):234–40.
Brans K, Koval P, Verduyn P, Lim YL, Kuppens P. (2013). The Regulation of Negative and Positive Affect in Daily Life. American Psychological Assoc; 13(3).
Chittem, M., Chawak, S., Gomathy, S., Sridharan, P., & Sahay, R. (2018). The relationship between diabetes-related emotional distress and illness perceptions among Indian patients with Type II diabetes. Psychol. Health 14(28): 235–257.
Douaihy, A., & Sing, N. (2011). Factors affecting quality of lif in patient with HIV infection .Aids reader, 11(9).622-90.
Erien, J. (2017). Adherence revisited: The patient’s choice. Orthopedic Nurcing, 21(2): 79- 82.
Frey MA, Naar-King S, Templin T, Cunningham P, Cakan N. (2018). Use of multisystemic therapy to improve regimen adherence among adolescents with type 1 diabetes in chronic poor metabolic control: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care; 28(7): 1604-1610.
Friedman, C., Nelson, V., Baer, P., Lane, M., Smith, F., & Dworkin, R. J. (2016). The relationship of dispositional optimism, daily life stress, and domestic environment to coping methods used    by cancer patients. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15(9), 178-192.
Gilman, R.; Ashby, J. S.; Sverko, d.; Florell, D. and verjas, k .(2005). The relationship between perfectionism and multidimensional life satisfaction among Croatian and American youth. Personality & Individual Differences vol.39, Issue. 1, pp155-166.
Glasser, W. (2006). Choice theory of the new personal freedom psychology. Firouzbakht M. (translator). Tehran: Rasa Cultural Services Institute; 1727.
Howatt, W. (2018). The Evolution of Reality Therapy to Choice Theory. International Journal of Reality Therapy. Vol 435, Number 1.
Jicabson, S. (2018). Correlation between mental well-being and quality of life marital. , Journal of personality and social psychology, 7(16), 267-292.
Kord, B. T. and kahrazei .(2010). General Health and Life Satisfaction of Students in Polygamy and Monogamy Families. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology. Vol. 36, No.2, 307- 310. 
Kusman I, Sunuttra T, Kittikorn N. (2014). Coping and quality of life among undergoing hemodialysis. Thai J Nurs Res; 13(2):109-17.
Lioyd CE, Orchard T. (2018). Physical and psychological well-being in adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract; 44(1): 9-19. 8
Lowis, M. J, ; Edwards, A. C.; Singlehurst, H. M.(2011). The Relationship Between Preretirement Occupation and Older Adults' Life Satisfaction and Self-Rated Health. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied. Volume 145.
Nagpal J, Kumar A , Kakar S , Bhartia A. (2010). The Development of ‘Quality of Life Instrument forIndian Diabetes Patients (QOLID) :a Validation and reliability Study in Middle and Higher Income groups ,J Assoc Physicians India, 58(15): 295-304.
Sandra, R., Binimol, J., Annakutty, P., & Selcy, J. (2018). Radiology and the Dialysis Patient: Collaboration and Quality of Care. Journal of Radiology Nursing, 37(3):211-235.
Siewierska, K., Malicka, I., Kobierzycki, C., Paslawska, U., Cegielski, M., Grzegrzolka, J., & Wozniewski, M. (2018). The Impact of Exercise Training on Breast Cancer in vivo, 32(2), 249-254.
Sittner KJ, Greenfield BL, Walls ML. (2018). Microaggression, diabetes distress, and self-care behaviors in a sample of American Indians adults with type 2 diabetes. J Behav Med; 41; 122-129.
Yamawaki, N; Nelson, J. A.P and Omori, M.(2011). Self-esteem and life satisfaction as mediators between parental bonding and psychological well-being in Japanese young adults. International Journal of Psychology and Counseling Vol. 3(1), pp. 1-8.