The prediction of the psychological burden of Corona-virus on women in the family during the quarantine: The role of problem-solving styles and psychological capital

Document Type : Original Article


Master of Educational Psychology, Bandar Lengeh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Lengeh, Iran


Aim: This study was aimed to study the role of problem solving styles and psychological capital in perceived stress caused by Coronavirus among the women of family. Method: The research method was descriptive-correlational, and from the statistical population of women in Bandar Abbas, 155 women participated in the study as a sample by using the convenience sampling method. The data were collected using the Cassidy and Lang (1996) Problem Solving Styles Questionnaire, gLuten & Avolio (2007) Psychological Capital, and Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein (1983) Perceived Stress. Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: There was a positive correlation between the problem-solving styles of helplessness, avoidance, and tendency, and perceived stress, and there was a significant negative correlation between the problem-solving styles of inhibition, creativity, and trust and the perceived stress (p = 0.01). Also, there is a significant correlation between self-efficacy and resilience subscales and perceived stress (p = 0.01). And there is a significant correlation between the total score of psychological capital and the subscales of hope and optimism and perceived stress (p = 0.05). The stepwise regression coefficients showed that inhibition style with a beta coefficient (β = 0.27), creativity style with a beta coefficient (β = 0.24), self-efficacy psychological capital with a beta coefficient (β = 0.20), psychological capital Resilience with a beta coefficient (β = 0.19), and psychological capital of optimism with a beta coefficient (β = 0.17) were able to predict the perceived stress of coronavirus in women. Conclusion: According to the findings of the study, it seems that the use of emotion regulation strategies and having a sense of meaning in life can reduce the severity of the psychological burden in stressful situations.


خرمایی، فرهاد.، و زابلی، مصطفی. (1397). بررسی رابطه بین سبک‌های حل مسئله و اهمال‌کاری تحصیلی دانش‌آموزان دبیرستانی: نقش میانجی خودکارآمدی تحصیلی. راهبردهای شناختی در یادگیری، 6(10): 17-38.
رجبی، حبیب.، حریزاوی، محمد.، و تقی پور، سجاد. (1395). نقش واسطه‌ای خود شفقتی در رابطه راهبرد مقابله‌ای و  سلامت روان. مجله علوم روان‌شناختی، 2(3): 45-58.
سیاح، مهدی.، اولی پور، علیرضا.، اردمه، علی.، شهیدی، شکوه.، و یعقوبی عسگرآباد، اسماعیل. (1393). پیش‌بینی سلامت روان و عملکرد تحصیلی دانشجویان از طریق راهبردهای تنظیم شناخت هیجان در دانشجویان دانشگاه جندی‌شاپور اهواز. فصلنامه مرکز مطالعات و توسعه آموزش علوم پزشکی، 5(1): 37-44.
شاطری، زهره.، اشکانی، نجمه.، و مدرس غروی، مرتضی. (1388). بررسی رابطه بین نگرانی مرضی، شیوه‌های حل مسئله و افکار خودکشی در نمونه غیر بالینی. مجله علمی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کردستان، 14(1): 92-100.
عزیزی، سمانه.، و بشرپور، سجاد. (1399). نقش نشخوار فکری، تنظیم هیجان و واکنش‌پذیری به استرس در پیش‌بینی اضطراب ویروس کرونا (کووید-19) در پرستاران. فصلنامه مدیریت پرستاری، 9(3): ۸-۱۸.
علی پور، احمد.، قدمی، ابوالفضل.، علی پور، زهرا.، و عبداله زاده، حسن. (1399). اعتباریابی مقدماتی مقیاس اضطراب بیماری کرونا (CDAS) در نمونه ایرانی. مجله روانشناسی سلامت، 8(32): 165-175.
محمدی، زهرا. ( 1387 ). تعیین مشخصات روان‌سنجی مقیاس سبک‌های حل مسئله کسیدی و لانگ. مجله توان‌بخشی، 8(31): 63-59.
مهدی زادگان، ایران.، و شریفی رنانی، زینب. (1394). مقایسه رضایت جنسی، تعهد زناشویی، صمیمیت زناشویی و تصویر بدن در زنان متأهل شاغل و خانه‌دار. فصلنامه زن و مطالعات خانواده، 8(29): 135-150.
Ashish, D. (2016). Self-Compassion and the Need of Self-Preservation. In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of philosophy. The University of Arizona.
Baker, D.A., Caswell, H.L., Eccles, F.J.R. (2019). Self-compassion and depression, anxiety, and resilience in adults with epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 90: 154-161.
Barnard, L. K., & Curry, J. F. (2011). Self-compassion: Conceptualizations, correlates, & interventions. Review of general psychology, 15(4): 274- 289.
Brion, J. M., Leary, M. R., & Drabkin, A. S. (2014). Self-compassion and reactions to serious illness: The case of HIV. Journal of health psychology, 19(2): 218-229.
Cassidy T, Lang C,. (2005). Problem- Solving Style, stress and Psychological Illness, British journal of Clinical Psychological society; 35: 265-277.
Cassidy, T. (2002). Problem-solving style, Achievement motivation, Psychological distress and Response to a simulated emergency. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 15: 325-332.
Cassidy, T. (2010). Problem-solving style, achievement motivation, psychological distress and response to a simulated emergency. Journal of Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 15(4): 325-332.
Chu, X.-W., Fan, C.-Y., Liu, Q.-Q., & Zhou, Z.-K. (2018). Cyberbullying victimization and symptoms of depression and anxiety among Chinese adolescents: Examining hopelessness as a mediator and selfcompassion as a moderator. Computers in Human Behavior, 86: 377–38.
Diedrich A, Hofmann SG, Cuijpers P, Berking M. (2016). Self-compassion enhances the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal as an emotion regulation strategy in individuals with major depressive disorder. Behav Res Ther. 82:1-10.
Diedrich, A., Grant, M., Hofmann, S. G., Hiller, W., & Berking, M. (2014). Self-compassion as an emotion regulation strategy in major depressive disorder. Behaviour research therapy, 58: 43-51.
Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., & Eggum, N. D. (2010). Emotionrelated self-regulation and its relation to children’s maladjustment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6(9): 495–525.
Fischhoff, B. (2020). Speaking of Psychology: Coronavirus Anxiety. In:
Gilbert, P., & Procter, S. J. C. P. (2006). Compassionate mind training for people with high shame and self‐criticism: Overview and pilotstudy of a group therapy approach. Clinical Psychology Psychothrapy, 13(6): 379-353.
Huh, HJ. Kim, KH. Lee, HK. Chae, JH. (2017). the relationship between childhood trauma and the severity of adulthood depression and anxiety symptoms in a clinical sample: The mediating role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies. J Affect Disord. 213: 44-50.
Hupfeld, J., & Ruffieux, N. (2011). Validierung einer deutschen version der Self-Compassion Scale (SCS-D). Zeitschrift für klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie.
     Kalia V, Fuesting M, Cody M. (2019). Perseverance in solving Sudoku: role of grit and cognitive flexibility in problem solving. J Cogn Psychol, 31(3): 370-8.
Krieger, T., Altenstein, D., Baettig, I., Doerig, N., & Holtforth, M. G. (2013). Self-compassion in depression: Associations with depressive symptoms, rumination, and avoidance in depressed outpatients. Behavior Therapy, 44(3): 501-513.
Metis S, Cupach WR. (2018).The influence of relationship beliefs and problem‐solving responses on satisfaction in romantic relationships. Hum. J Commun Res, 17(1): 170-85.
Neff, K. (2012). The science of self-compassion. Compassion and wisdom in psychotherapy, 79-92.
Neff, K. D. & Costigan, A. P. (2013). SelfCompassion, Wellbeing and Happiness. Psychologie in Österreich. 2(3): 114-119.
Neff, K. D., & Dahm, K. A. (2015). Self-compassion: What it is, what it does, and how it relates to mindfulness. Handbook of mindfulness and self- Regulation. 76(6): 121-137
Neff, K. D., Pisitsungkagarn, K., & Hsieh, Y.-P. (2008). Self-compassion and self-construal in the United States, Thailand, and Taiwan. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39(3): 267-285.
Roy, D., Tripathy, S., Kar, SK., Sharma, N., Verma, SK, Kaushal, V. (2020). Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pandemic. Asian J Psychiatr. 51: 1-7.
Rubin, G. J., Wessely, S. (2020). The psychological effects of quarantining a city. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 368, m313. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m313.
Strauss AY, Kivity Y, Huppert JD. (2019). Emotion regulation strategies in cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder. Behav Ther. 50(3): 659-71.
Tong Z-D., Tang A., Li K-F., Li P.,Wang H-L., Yi J-P. (2020).Potential presymptomatic transmission of SARS-CoV-2, Zhejiang Province, China. Emerg Infect Dis, 65(5): 1052-1060
Valero-Moreno, S., Lacomba-Trejo, L., Casaña-Granell, S. (2020). Psychometric properties of the questionnaire on threat perception of chronic illnesses in pediatric patients. Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem. 28:e3242. DOI: 10.1590/1518-8345.3144.3242.
World Health Organization. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) situation report–34. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. https://www. /docs/default-source/ coronaviruse /situation-reports/20200223-sitrep-34-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn= 44ff8fd3 _ 2pdf icon.
Wu, Z., McGoogan, J. M. (2020). Characteristics of and Important Lessons from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: Summary of a Report of 72 314 Cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention external icon. JAMA. Published online: February 24.DOI:10.1001/jama.2020.2648.
Yarnell, L. M., & Neff, K. D. (2012). Selfcompassion, interpersonal conflict resolutions, and well-being. Self and Identity, 1: 1–14.