The Mediating Role of Parent-Child Conflict in the Relationship Between Self-Differentiation and Social Anxiety

Document Type : Original Article


1 M.Sc. Department of Psychology, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Aim: This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of parent-child conflict in the relationship between self-differentiation and social anxiety. Method: This is a descriptive correlational study. This study's statistical population was female high school students who study in the 2nd district of Tehran in the academic year of 2018-19. Sampling was performed by random multi-stage clustering. First, three high schools were selected from the girls' high schools in District 2 of Tehran. Then, two classes were selected from each high school according to their educational levels. A sample of 287 students was selected by random cluster sampling, and they answered the Differentiation Questionnaire (Scorn, 1998), Parent-Child Conflict Tactics (‎Straus, 1990), and Social Anxiety Questionnaire (Liebowitz, 1999). Results: The results of the correlation coefficient showed that there was a significant correlation between the total score of differentiation (r = -0.201) as well as subscales of my position (r = -0.256), emotional escape (r = -0.203), and fusion with others (r = -0.180) with social anxiety at the level of 0.01. Also, there was a significant correlation between the subscale of emotional responsiveness (r =-0.156) and social anxiety at the level of 0.05. There was also a correlation between parent-child conflict and social anxiety (r = 0.188) and between verbal aggression subscale (r = 0.186) and physical aggression subscale (r = 0.179) with social anxiety. Besides, the path coefficient model results showed a significant direct relationship between differentiation and social anxiety and between parent-child conflict and social anxiety (p = 0.01). Still, there was no significant direct effect between differentiation and parent-child conflict (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that the consequence of mothers' differentiation is to reduce the conflict between parents and children and reduce anxiety in children and adolescents because differentiated individuals differentiate between emotional and intellectual processes and are not influenced by others' thoughts and behavior.


اسدی، الهه.، جاویدی، حجت الله.، و قاسمی، نوشاد. (1394). رابطة تعارض والد- نوجوان، تاب آوری با مشکلات روان شناختی نوجوانان مقطع دوم و سوم راهنمایی در مناطق چهارگانة آموزش و پرورش شهر شیراز. مطالعات روان شناختی، 11. (1). 75- 96.
اصل‌دهقان، فاطمه.، رضاییان فرجی، حمید.، و حسینیان، سیمین. (1397). نقش مولفه‌های تمایزیافتگی والدین در پیش بینی تمایزیافتگی دانش آموزان دختر و پسر. دانش و پژوهش در روانشناسی کاربردی، 19(1)؛ 10-17.
اناری، آسیه. (1386). بررسی اثر بخشی نمایش درمانگری در کاهش نشانه های اختلال اضطراب اجتماعی در کودکان. پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد. دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران.   
بیرامی، منصور.، و محبی، مینا. (1395). رابطه دلبستگی به والدین و ادراک از تعارض بین والدین با اختلال اضطراب اجتماعی در دانش‌آموزان دختر: نقش میانجی‌گری راهبرد مقابله‌ای هیجان مدار. مجله روانشناسی بالینی. 8. (1). (29).
ثنایی ذاکر، باقر. (1387). پرسشنامه‌های سنجش خانواده و ازدواج.تهران: بعثت.
حسین‌پناهی، نسرین.، و گودرزی، محمود. (1397). اثبخشی آموزش مولفه‌های نظریه انتخاب بر کاهش تعارض والد-فرزندی دانش‌آموزان دختر. مجله روانشناسی و روانپزشکی شناخت، 5 (2)؛ 43-52.
حسنی، جعفر.، فیاضی، مرتضی.، و اکبری، اکبر. (1395). اعتبار، روایی و ساختار عاملی تائیدی نسخه‌ی فارسی مقیاس اضطراب اجتماعی لایبویتز. فصلنامه پژوهش‌های روانشناسی اجتماعی، 6(24)؛ 52-35.
کاپوتزی، دیوید.، و اشتاوفر، مارک. (2015). مبانی مشاوره زوج‌ها، ازدواج و خانواده. ترجمه: شکوه نوابی‌نژاد، نادره سعادتی و مهدی رستمی (1395). تهران: انتشارات جنگل.
قمری، محمد.، و قمری گندوانی، آرزو. (1393). رابطه ابعاد عملکرد خانواده با تعارض والد-نوجوان در بین دانش آموزان مقطع راهنمایی. فصلنامه فرهنگی-تربیتی زنان و خانواده. 8 (26)؛ 173-157
محسنی، هادی. (1393). بررسی رابطة بین خودمتمایزسازی مادران با والد فرزندی و مسئولیت‌پذیری دانش‌آموزان دختر دوره راهنمایی. پایان‌نامة کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی
محمدی‌برمی، حلیمه.، و کشاورز افشار، حسین. (1395). نقش عملکرد خانواده و تمایز یافتگی مادر در پیش بینی اضطراب دختران نوجوان. پژوهش نامة زنان، پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی و مطالعات فرهنگی. سال هفتم، شمارة چهارم، 131 – 101.
نجف‌لویی، فاطمه. (1385). نقش تمایز خود در روابط زناشویی، اندیشه های نوین تربیتی، 2،(4و3). 27-37.
Ali, N. M. (2010). Enhancing transformative mediation to address family conflict. New Mexico State University.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Bartle-Haring, S., & Gregory, P. (2003). Relationship between Differentiation of Self and the Stress and Distress Associated with Predictive Cancer Genetic Counseling and Testing: Preliminary Evidence. Families, Systems, & Health, 21(4), 357.
 Bowen, M. (1978). Family therapy in clinical practice. New York: Jason Aronson.
Dawans B., Trüg A., Kirschbaum C., Dziobek I., Fischbacher U., Heinrichs M. (2017). Effects of social and non-social stress on social behavior in health and social anxiety disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 83(3); 71-89.
Dryman, M. T., Gardner, S., Weeks, J. W., & Heimberg, R. G. (2016). Social anxiety disorder and quality of life:  How fears of negative and positive evaluation relate to specific domains of life satisfaction. Journal of anxiety disorders, 38, 1-8
Gabelman, E. (2012). The Effects of Locus of Control and Differentiation of Self onRelationship Satisfaction. Honors Research Thesis. The Ohio state university
Granö, N. Marjaana Karjalainen, Klaus Ranta, Maija Lindgren, Mikko Roine, (2016). Community-oriented family-based intervention superior to standard treatment in improving depression, hopelessness and functioning among adolescents with any psychosis-risk symptoms. Sebastian Therma Psychiatry Research, 237, 9-16.
Freeman, H. & Almond, T. (2009). Predicting Adolescent Self Differentiation from Relationships with Parents and Romantic Partners. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth: 15. 121-143.
Hainlen, R. L., Jankowski, P. J., Paine, D. R., & Sandage, S. J. (2016). Adult attachment and well-being: Dimensions of differentiation of self as mediators. Contemporary Family Therapy, 38(2), 172-183.
Heimberg, R. G., Horner, K. J., Juster, H. R., Safren, S. A., Brown, E. J., Schneier, F. R., & Liebowitz, M. R. (1999). Psychometric properties of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Psychological Medicine, 29, 199-212.
Hudson, J. L. (2013). Parent-child relationships in early childhood and development of anxiety & depression. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development. Centre for Emotional Health, Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Australia.
Hooper, L. M. & DePuy, V. (2010) Mediating and moderating effects of differentiationof self on depression symptomatology in a rural community sample. The Family Journal, 18: 358–368.
Kıralp, Y., Dincyürek, S., & Beidoğlu, M. (2009). Determining the conflict resolution strategies of university students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 1205-1214.
Kingsbury, M. & Coplan R. (2015). Social anxiety and interpretation of ambiguous text messages. Computers in Human Behavior, 54: 368-379
Nelson, T. S. (2002), Differentiation: An investigation of Bowen therapy with clinical and nonclinical couplesDoctoral dissertation, The university of lowa: Dissertation Abstracts International, 48, pp. 25-43.
 Shannon, J. (2012). The Shyness and Social Anxiety Workbook for Teens: CBT and ACT Skills to Help You Build Social Confidence: USA: New Harbinger Pub
Shearman, S.M. & Dumlao, R. (2008). A cross-cultural comparison of family communication patterns and conflict between young adults and parents, Journal of Family Communication, 8 (3): 186–211.
Skowron, E. A. (2000). The role of differentiation of self in marital adjustment. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(2), 229–237.
Skowron, E. A., & Schmitt, T. A. (2003). Assessing interpersonal fusion: Reliability and validity of a new DSI fusion with others subscale. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 29(2), 209–222.
Staring AB, van den Berg DP, Cath DC, Schoorl M, Engelhard IM, Korrelboom CW. (2016). Self-esteem treatment in anxiety: A randomized controlled crossover trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Competitive Memory Training (COMET) in patients with anxiety disorders. Behav Res Ther, 82:11-20 32.
Peleg, O. & Zoabi, M. (2014). Social anxiety and differentiation of self: A comparison of Jewish and Arab college students. Article in Personality and Individual Differences 68:221–228. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.04.032.
Pineo, P. (2012). Bowen Theory: A studyof differentiation of self, social anxiety, andhysiological symptoms, contemporary FamilyTherapy, 24(2), 55-69.
Zarb, J. (2014). Cognitive-behavioural assessment and therapy with adolescents. Routledge.
Zimmer-Gembeck, W.H. Ducat, W.A. (2011). Collins Encyclopedia of Adolescence, pp 66-76.